Student assessment in school and more specifically in physical education (PE) is a current debate. However, this debate is often ideological without any scientific background. While there are a lot of studies on grading in school, there is a lack of studies on assessment without grade and its effects on teachers or students, particularly in PE. This book is based on a comparative study between three French-speaking states in Switzerland using different modes of communication of the summative assessment in PE: the state of Geneva (certificate-based grades), Jura (indicative grades) and Vaud (no grades). This study was conducted with a large number of secondary school students and teachers combining an approach by questionnaires (3967 students, 214 teachers) and an interview approach related to observations (26 students and 10 teachers). This book helps to highlight the impact of the summative assessment and its various modes of communication (certificate-based grades, indicative grades, no grades) on different factors related to teaching, learning and recognition of PE and its teachers at school.